Author Guidlines

General guidelines

  1. The Journal accepts original and innovative submissions in English on the understanding that the work is unpublished and is not being considered for publication elsewhere.
  2. The manuscripts must be single-spaced typed, written in fair grammatical English.
  • Use of hyphens, capital letters and numbers written or spelled out (e.g., 8 or eight) should be consistent throughout the manuscript.
  1. Manuscripts submitted to the journal are accepted on the basis of following criteria.

a). All manuscripts must be in English and in MS Word format.
b). They have not been published in whole or in part in any other journal.
c). The e-mail addresses and telephone numbers of all authors must be provided
d). Illustrations (figures) of manuscripts should be in computer format.
e). Authors must state in the submission form when submitting papers for publication, the originality and novelty embodied in their work or in the approach taken in their research.
f). Manuscripts submitted with multiple authors are reviewed on the assumption that all listed authors concur with the submission and that a copy of the final manuscript has been approved by all authors.

Format & Style
Text of manuscript should be arranged in the following order:
Title, Abstract, Introduction, Body Text, Results and Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements and References.

Title: Title should be short and enough to explain gist of your research work (maximum 12 words.

Abstract: It should be of not more than 150 words for brief reports and 250 words for original articles and other article types. At the end of the abstract you must provide 3 to 8 keywords.

Introduction: Introduction should state the purpose, the outline of the paper and summarize the research work findings, arguments and conclusion.

Body Text: It should be elaborative enough to explain all the objectives, procedures, methods, arguments, results, findings, observations and data and discussions. Use heading and subheading and references wherever needed. In presenting the result and discussion, it is preferred to discuss all the results in detail in case of original research paper. To explain observed data you can use figures, graphs and tables.

Conclusion and recommendations: A conclusion might elaborate on the importance of the work or suggest applications and extensions.

References: It includes all sources referred to: journal articles referred to websites, books etc. which is referred by author(s) in the present research work.

The entire document should be in Times New Roman.

Referencing style (attribution)

References to other publications must be in APA style for Finesse journals. All references should be carefully checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency. You should include all author names and initials and give any journal titles in full.



  1. In citing a work by one author APA uses the author-date method; that is the surname of the author and the year of publication which are inserted in the text at appropriate point both for print and electronic sources:

Wafula(2008) compared the academic performance...

In a recent study on academic performance (Wafula, 2008)...

  1. When names of the author(s) of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, only the year of publication appears in parenthesis. Join the names of authors with the word “and”. When a work has two authors, always cite both names everytime the reference appears in the text.

According to Bourdieu and Wacquant (1992) the key purpose of sociology is to expose the structure of the social universe and how it is reproduced or transformed.

  • When the author(s) of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and years of publication appear in parenthesis. In this case join the names of authors with ampersand (&):

The key purpose of sociology has been viewed as to expose the structure of the social universe and how it is reproduced or transformed (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992).

  1. If the work has three, four or five authors, cite them all the first time one refers to the work. In subsequent citations one includes only the last name of the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication.

According to some sociologists (Baker, Wahlers, Watson & Kibler, 1987) the key characteristic of an open system is that it communicates and exchanges information freely with the environment. (cited for the first time)

According to some legal experts (Baker, et al., 1987), the operations of systems are determined by the goals and aims of their elements or members. (subsequent citation)

If a work has six or more authors, each time cite only the last name of the first author followed by “et al.” and the year of publication.

(Njoroge, et al., 2008).

  1. Spell out the names of must corporate authors each time you cite them. In some cases if your abbreviations are easily understood, you may abbreviate the corporate name in subsequent citations.

…(International Federation of Library and Archive Institutions, 2003)… (first theme citation)

… (IFLA, 2003)… (Subsequent citation)

If the corporate name is short or if the abbreviation would not be readily understable, write out each time in occurs

vii. If the work has no author, use the title or the first words of the title. Underline or italicize the title.

According to Who is who in Kenya (2006), the GDP of East African countries…The GDP of East African countries… (Who is who in Kenya, 2006)…

xii. If a work has no publication date, cite it by the author’s name followed by a comma and “n.d” (to mean ‘no date’):

Contemporary debates on gender (Schneider, n.d)…

xiii. In case of short direct quotations (fewer than forty words of prose or three lines or verse) one should incorporate it into the text and enclose the author’ name, year and the specific page in parenthetical citation. Provide full details of the work in our list of ‘References’.

The agency-structure dichotomy has sometimes been used to refer to “…the opposition between interpretive and positivist approaches to reality” (Swartz, 1999, p. 53).

  1. Place direct quotations longer than four lines in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented one inch from the left margin, and maintain double-spacing. Put the parenthetical citation after the closing punctuation mark then provide full details of the work in your reference as follows.

The agency-structure dichotomy has been used in reference to different theoretical and methodological issues, approaches, and theorists:

at times the dichotomy means the opposition between interpretive and positivist approaches to social reality; at other times the opposition contrasts between micro and macro levels of analysis; at still other times the opposition between the participant and the outside observer is indicated(Swartz, 1999, p. 53).

  • Any direct quotation, regardless of length must be accompanied by a reference citation including page number.
  • Direct quotations must be accurate and therefore must follow the wording, spelling, and interior punctuation of of the original source even if the source is incorrect.
  1. To cite a web (internet) document, use the author-date format. For electronic resources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number if available preceded by abbreviation para. If neither paragraph or page are visible cite the heading and the paragraph following it directly or the location of the material :

Onyango, 2012, para. 5

Onyango, 2012, Conclusion, para. 2

xvii. As in printed works, to cite a web (internet) document, if no author is identified, use the first few words of the title in place of the author. If there is no date is provided, use n.d in place of the date consider the following examples:

A research report has to be presented in clear and simple style (A

guide for writing research Reports, n.d.)

NB: As noted before this method of citation (author-date) is applied to both printed and electronic sources

  2. Books
  1. Citation of work cited in a secondary source. If you did read the work cited, list give the secondary source in the “Reference “list.

In the text, name the original work, and give citation for the secondary source. If you went ahead to head the original work, then put it in the “Reference “list e.g. (in-text)

Body building has been viewed as a way of asserting self definition (Mansfield and McGinn as cited in Hancock, et al., 2000).

In reference list

Hancock, et al. (2000). Masculinities. New York: Wiley.

  1. Format for books with Anonymous author

Writers’ and artists yearbook , 2004. (2004). London: A & C Black.

iii. Format for books with Corporate author

UNDP. (1998). Human development report, 1998. New York: Oxford University Press.

American Psychological Association. (2010).Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association (6 th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

  1. Format for books with Single author

Craib, I. (1997). C lassical social theory: An introduction to the thought of Marx, Weber, Durkheim, and Simmel . London: Oxford University Press.

  1. Book with two up to six authors: List all authors.

Evans, A.F., Evans, R. A., Kennedy, W. B., Smith, R.P., & Arnold, P.L. (1987). Pedagogies of the non-poor. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books.

  1. In case of a work with more than six, provide the initials and surnames of the first six authors and shorten the remaining authors to et. al

Mogaka, A.F., et. al (1987). County governments. Nairobi: Eastern


vii. Later or revised edition

Barker, L. L., Wahlers, K. J. Watson, K. W., Kibler, R.J. (1987). Groups in process: an introduction to small group communication (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice – Hall.

viii. Article or chapter without an author in a book

Solving the Y2K problem. (1997). In D. Bowd (Ed.), Technology today and tomorrow (p.27). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

  1. Works in more than one volume

Cushing, D. (Ed). (2000). A Middle English chronicle of the first crusade: The Caxton Eracles. Vol.1 . Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press.

x Papers from conference proceedings with editor

Masawe, M. (2004). ICT access initiatives for rural areas in Tanzania: An Overview of rural community tele-centres in Tanzania. In P. Birungi, and M. Musoke (Eds.). Towards a Knowledge Society for African Development: Papers Presented at the 15th. Standing Conference of Eastern, Central and Southern African Librarians (SCESCAL XVI), 5th-9th. July, 2004 Kampala, Uganda (pp 387- 417). Kampala: Uganda Library Association.

  1. Papers from conference proceedings without an editor

Mchombu, K.J (2000). Research on measuring the impact of information on rural development. In Information 2000: a vision for SCESCAL region: Paper presented at the 14th Standing Conference of Eastern, Central and Southern African Librarians, 10th-15th April 2000, Windhoek, Namibia. Windhoek: Namibian Information Workers Association.

xii. Edited book

May, T & Williams, M. (Eds.). (1998). Knowing the social world . Buckingham: Open University Press.

xiv. Essay or chapter in a collection or edited book

Norris, C. (1995). Culture, criticism and communal values: On ethics enquiry. In B. Adam, & S. Allan, (Eds.), The Interdisciplinary critique after postmodernism (pp. 5- 40). London: UCL Press.

  1. Encyclopeadia article

Syokimao, H.C (2011). Migration. In The Finesse encyclopedia of demography (Vol. 4, pp. 345-348). Nairobi: Finesse.

b). Journal articles

  1. Article from print journals using continuous pagination

Joint, N. & Law, D. (2000). The electronic library: A review. Library Review, 49, 428-435.

  1. Article from print journals paginated by issue

Ocholla, D. (1995). Professional development, manpower education and training in information sciences in Kenya. Library Management, 16(8), 11-26.

Kavulya, J. M. (2004). Adoption of electronic journals in scholarly communication in African Universities: A review of critical issues. Eastern Africa Journal of Humanities and Sciences, 4 (1) 32-47.

iii. Weekly magazine or Newspaper with author

Galappatti, A. (2005, July). Reflections on post-tsunami psychosocial work. Forced Migration Review, pp. 32- 33.

Muthaka, B. & Gathura, G. (2006, June 23). Rising Aids cases linked

to violence. Daily Nation, pp.11-12

In case of magazines in volumes give the volume number

  1. Anonymous author in newspaper or magazine

US lags behind in women’s politics. (2006, June 30). Daily Nation, p. 19.

Crime in South Africa: Progress. (2006, October 11th-17th). The Economist, p. 50.

c). Format for Dissertations

  1. Published dissertations or theses

McVeigh, M. J. (1971). The interaction of the conception of God of the Africa traditional religion and Christianity in the thought of Edwin W. Smith . PhD Thesis. Boston University Graduate School. Ann Arbor: UMI.

  1. Unpublished thesis

Maruga, P. (1999). A Study of the meaning of obedience to the law in Plato’s “Crito” and “Apology.” Unpublished master’s thesis, Catholic University of Eastern Africa, Kenya.

d). Reference works

  1. Entire reference work

Baker, M. J. (1995). Companion encyclopedia of marketing. London: Routledge.


Sadie, S. (Ed.). (2007). The new dictionary of music and musicians (6th ed., Vols. 1- 20). London: Macmillan.

  1. Article in a reference work which is edited

Gummesson, E. (1995). Marketing of services. In M. J. Baker, (Ed.) Companion encyclopedia of marketing (pp. 819- 830). London: Routledge

iii. Article in a reference work which is widely known by title (e.g. Encyclopedia)

Bergman, P.G (1993). Relativity. In The New encyclopaedia Britannica (Vol.26, pp. 501-508).Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.

f). Government Documents

Republic of Kenya. (1996). Sessional paper No 2 of 1996 on industrial transformation to the year 2020 . Nairobi: Government Press.

g). Electronic Sources

  1. E-book retrieved from database

Kariuki, P. (2008). Global organizations. Retrieved from

h ttp:// ID=3476768

iii. Electronic Book Chapter

Norris, C. (1995). Culture, criticism and communal values: On ethics of enquiry. In B. Adam, & S. Allan, (Eds.), Theorizing culture: An

interdisciplinary critique after postmodernism (pp. 5- 40). Retrieved from Finesse E-books database.

  1. Thesis from an electronic database

Awgichew, K. (2005). Comparative performance of Horro and Menz sheep of Ethiopia under grazing and intensive feeding conditions ( Ph. D Thesis). Retrieved from h ttp:// 20/19/html

vii. Article without DOI retrieved from electronic database

Kavulya, J. M. (2006). Trends in funding university libraries in Kenya: A survey. The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances, 19 (1), pp. 22- 30. Retrieved from .html .

  1. Journal retrieved online but not necessarily from an e-database

Kavulya, J. M. (2006). Trends in funding university libraries in Kenya: A survey. The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances, 19 (1), pp. 22- 30. Retrieved from .html .

vii. Stand-alone Web document (with author and date)

Garfield, E. (2006). Citation indexing, its theory and application in science and technology . Retrieved from http://www .

  1. Stand-alone Web document (no author or date)

Glossary of literary theory: Index of primary entries (n.d). Retrieved

June 30, 2006, from .

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